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An old proverb says that even heaven cannot make a diligent worker poor. However, in TaeKwon-Do, diligence or intensive training alone does not produce quality techniques. On the contrary, instructions from a false or unqualified instructor would be worse than not being taught at all because unscientific movements not only reduce the power but require a tremendous amount of time to correct. On the other hand, under the proper guidance of a competent instructor, a student who trains earnestly with dedication will learn the true techniques of TaeKwon-Do in a comparatively short period of time with less effort.

Students should keep in mind the following secrets:

1) To study the theory of power thoroughly.
2) To understand the purpose and method of each movement clearly.
3) To bring the action of eyes, hands, feet and breathe into one single coordinated action.
4) To choose the appropriate attacking tool for each vital spot.
5) To become familiar with the correct angle and distance for attack and defence.
6) Keep both the arms and legs bent slightly while movement is in motion.
7) All movements must begin with a backward motion with very few exceptions. However, once the movement is in motion it should not be stopped before reaching the target.
8) To create a sine wave during the movement by utilizing the knee spring properly.
9. To exhale briefly at the moment of each blow excepting a connecting motion.

Reproduced from "TaeKwon-Do" (The Korean Art of Self Defense) also known as The Condensed Encyclopedia. 
Copyright 1988, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999 General Choi, Hong Hi.



The Founder Of TaeKwon-Do - General Choi Hong Hi, 9th Degree Black Belt.

TaeKwon-Do is a Korean martial art since the Founder was Korean.

TaeKwon-Do literally means ‘Foot Hand Art’ - The art of hand and foot fighting.

TaeKwon-Do was founded on 11th April 1955.

UKTI - United Kingdom Training Institutes.

ITF - International TaeKwon-Do Federation.

Tenets: - Courtesy, Integrity, Perseverance, Self-Control, Indomitable Spirit.

White Belt - signifies Innocence. The Student has no previous knowledge of TaeKwon-Do.

Attention Stance - Charyot Sogi

Parallel Stance - Narani Sogi

Sitting Stance - Annun Sogi

Walking Stance - Gunnun Sogi

Fore-Fist - Ap Joomuk

Knife-Hand - Sonkal

Obverse Punch - Baro Jirugi

Reverse Punch – Bandae Jirugi

Outer Forearm - Bakat Palmok

Inner Forearm - An Palmok

Rising Block - Chookyo Makgi

Front Snap Kick - Apcha busigi

Front Rising Kick – Apcha Olligi

Instructor - Sabum

Low - Najunde

Middle - Kaunde

High -  Nopunde

Attention- Charyot

Ready – Junbi

Back to Ready - Paro

At Ease – Swiyo

Dismiss - Hae San


Reverse Punch - Bandae Jirugi

L-Stance - Niunja Sogi

Guarding Block - Daebi Makgi

Front Rising Kick - Apcha Olligi

Side Piercing Kick - Yopcha Jirugi

Flying High Kick - Twimyo Nopi Chagi

3 Step Sparring - Sambo Matsogi

Pattern - Tul - Patterns are various fundamental movements, most of which represent either attack or defense techniques, set to a fixed or logical sequence. The pattern should begin and end on the same spot.


Chon-Ji literally means ‘the Heaven, the Earth’. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner.  This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.  The pattern consists of 19 movements.

Yellow Belt - signifies the Earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the TaeKwon-Do foundation is being laid.


L-Stance Knife-Hand Guarding Block - Niunja So Sonkal Daebi Makgi

L-Stance Twin Forearm Block - Niunja So Sang Palmok Makgi

Flying Side Piercing Kick - Twimyo Yopcha Jirugi

Turning Kick - Dollyo Chagi

Double Side Piercing Kick - I-Jung Yopcha Jirugi

Free Sparring - Jayu Matsogi

Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.C. The pattern consists of 21 movements.


Straight Fingertip Thrust - Sun Sonkut Tulgi

Wedging Block - Hechyo Makgi

Downward Kick - Naeryo Chagi

Pick Shape Kick - Gokaeng-i Chagi

Do-San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938). The pattern consists of 24 movements. The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its Independence movement.

Green Belt - signifies the plants growth as the Taekwon-Do skills begin to develop.


Fixed Stance - Gojung Sogi

Bending Ready Stance - Guburyo Junbi Sogi

Circular Block - Dollimyo Makgi

Crescent Kick - Bandal Chagi

Twisting Kick - Bituro Chagi

Checking Kick - Cha Momchugi

2-Step Sparring - Ibo Matsogi

Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686A.D. The pattern consists of 28 movements.


Palm Hooking Block - Sonbadak Golcho Makgi

Elbow Strike - Palkup Taerigi

X-Stance - Kyocha Sogi

Back Fist Strike - Dung Joomuk Taerigi

High Double Forearm Block - Nopunde Doo Palmok Makgi

Pressing Kick - Noollo Chagi

Reverse Turning Kick - Bandae Dollyo Chagi

Back Piercing Kick - Dwitcha Jirugi

Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the ‘Confuscious of Korea’. The pattern consists of 38 movements. The 38 movements represent his birthplace on 38 Degrees Latitude and the pattern Diagram represents ‘scholar’.

Blue Belt - signifies the Heaven, towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in TaeKwon-Do progresses.


Palm Upward Block - Sonbadak Ollyo Makgi

Upper Elbow Strike – Wi Palkup Taerigi

X-Fist Rising Block - Kyocha Joomuk Chookyo Makgi

Twin Vertical Punch – Sang Sewo Jirugi

Twin Upset punch – Sang Dwijibo Jirugi

Release – Jappyosul Tae

Low Stance - Nachuo Sogi

Palm Pressing Block - Sonbadak Noollo Makgi

Close Stance - Moa Sogi

Angle Punch - Giokja Jirugi

U-Shape Block - Digutcha Makgi

Hooking Kick - Golcho Chagi

Reverse Hooking Kick - Bandae Dollyo Gorochagi

Semi-Free Sparring - Ban Jayu Matsogi

Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese Governor- General of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. The Pattern consists of 32 movements. The 32 movements represent Mr Ahns age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison (1910).


Low Upset Thrust - Najunde Dwijibun Sonkut Tulgi

Close Stance – Moa Sogi

X-Fist Pressing Block - Kyocha Joomuk Noolo Makgi

Twin Vertical Punch - Sang Sewo Jirugi

Twin Side Elbow Thrust - Sang Yop Palkup Tulgi

Double Forearm Pushing Block – Doo Palmok Miro Makgi

Knee – Moorup

Upward Kick – Ollyo Chagi

High Flat Finger-Tip Thrust - Nopunde Opun Sonkut Tulgi

Flying Reverse Turning Kick - Twimyo Bandae Dollyo Chagi

Flying Back Piercing Kick - Twimyo Dwitcha Jirugi

Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th Century), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The pattern consists of 37 movements. The 37 movements refer to his birthplace on 37 Degrees lattitude, and the diagram represents ‘scholar’


Red Belt - signifies danger, cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away.


Pushing Block - Miro Makgi

Upward Punch - Ollyo Jirugi

Vertical Stance - Soojik Sogi

Downward Knifehand Strike - Naeryo Sonkal Taerigi

L-Stance Obverse Punch – Niunja So Baro Jirugi

Elbow Thrust - Palkup Tulgi

High Inner Forearm Side Block - Nopunde An Palmok Yop Makgi

1-Step Sparring - Ilbo Matsogi

Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in the Silla dynasty in the early 7th century. The pattern consists of 29 movements. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity.


Inward Knifehand Strike - Anuro Sonkal Taerigi

High Reverse Knifehand Front Strike - Nopunde Sonkal Dung Ap Taerigi

Inward Outer Forearm Block - Anuro Bakat Palmok Makgi

X Knife-Hand Block - Kyocha Sonkal Makgi

Consecutive Kick - Yonsok Chagi

Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Lee dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.  The pattern consists of 30 movements.

Black Belt - is the opposite of white, signifying the maturity and proficiency in TaeKwon-Do. It also indicates the wearer’s imperviousness to darkness and fear.

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